Category: Endocrinology

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatoid Arthritis causes swelling, stiffness and pain of the joints of the hands, wrists, elbows, knees and ankles, There is a lining tissue inside joints called synovium. The synovium produces lubricating fluid for the joints. In Rheumatoid Arthritis, the synovium or lining tissue becomes thickened with inflammatory cells. This excess inflammatory tissue causes symptoms of […]

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

The Antiphospholipid Syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which an antibody is made which is directed against the lining of blood vessels. There is an increased incidence of clotting of the blood in arteries and veins. Blocking of arteries(the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart) may result in stroke(lack of circulation to […]

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Symptoms – pain, stiffness, and potentially loss of motion of the spine and pain, stiffness and swelling of joints including the shoulders, hips, knees and ankles. Early detection is needed to prevent loss of flexibility particular of the spine. In contrast to most other forms of arthritis, men are much more commonly affected than women. […]


Osteoporosis is the gradual weakening of bones, which may result in loss of height and bone fractures. We have previous thought of this as an inevitable process associated with aging. Osteoporosis is preventable and treatable. Imagine yourself driving over a bridge. You notice that many of the bridge’s support beams have collapsed and deteriorated. Would […]

Gouty Arthritis

Gout is caused by the deposit of uric acid crystal in joints. These crystals inflame and eventually may damage joints. Early in the course of gout, there is severe pain, redness and swelling in the big toe. (This is called podagra). I feel like the foot is being held in a hot oven. This typically […]

Degenerative Disc Disease

Our spine is made of a series of blocks with are stacked vertically. The blocks are called vertebrae. Between each vertebra is a cushion, called a disc. The discs are made of cartilage and have high water content. As we age, the water content in the disc decreases making the disc less compressible and elastic. […]